Occupational Asthma


Occupational asthma is caused by inhaling fumes, gases, dust or other potentially harmful substances while “on the job.”  Irritants in high doses that induce occupational asthma include hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide or ammonia, which is found in the petroleum or chemical industries. If you are exposed to any of these substances at high concentrations, you may begin wheezing and experiencing other asthma symptoms immediately after exposure.  Workers who already have asthma or some other respiratory disorder may also experience an increase in their symptoms during exposure to these irritants. Often, asthma symptoms are worse during days or nights you work, improve when you have time off and start again when you go back to work.  People with a family history of allergies are more likely to develop occupational asthma, particularly to some substances such as flour, animals and latex. Allergies play a role in many cases of occupational asthma. This type of asthma generally develops only after months or years of exposure to a work-related substance.

Ocular Allergy


See Allergic Conjunctivitis

Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS)


The proteins found in some fruits and vegetables are very similar to those found in particular pollen. These proteins can confuse the immune system in people with food or outdoor allergies. The result is called oral allergy syndrome (OAS). For instance, if you are allergic to birch tree pollen, a primary airborne allergen responsible for symptoms in the springtime, you may have reactions triggered by peach, apple, pear, kiwi, plum, coriander, fennel, parsley, celery, cherry and carrot. The most frequent reaction involves itchiness or swelling of the mouth, face, lip, tongue and throat. Symptoms usually appear immediately after eating raw fruits or vegetables, although the reaction can occur more than an hour later. Rarely, OAS can cause severe throat swelling or anaphylaxis in a person who is highly allergic.

Oral Immunotherapy

You might benefit from immunotherapy to help build up a tolerance to your offending triggers. Sublingual Immunotherapy (also known as Allergy Tablets) or Liquid Drops Formulations are offered to some patients who suffer from allergies to short ragweed and some grass pollen. The tablets or drops will increase tolerance to the pollen and reduce symptoms over time. For continued effectiveness, treatment may be needed for three years or longer.

Peak Flow Meter (Pfm):


A peak flow meter for asthma is a handheld meter that measures how well air flows out of the lungs. Measuring your peak flow using this device is an important part of managing your asthma symptoms and preventing an asthma attack. That is because sometimes you may feel your breathing is fine, but when you measure it with a peak flow meter, you find your lung function is slightly decreased. A PFM can be used to:

• Determine the severity of your asthma

• Check your response to treatment during an acute asthma episode

• Monitor progress in treatment of chronic asthma and provide information for any changes in your therapy

• Detect worsening lung function and avoid a possible serious asthma flare-up

A peak flow meter can help you and your allergist evaluate how severe your asthma is at any point in time. With a peak flow meter, you can often see a drop in your readings even before your symptoms (like coughing or wheezing) get worse. Decreases in peak flow may show that you need to increase your medication. Another measure of asthma control is peak flow variability. For many people with asthma, symptoms are usually worse at night. By consistently monitoring nighttime peak flow measurements, you can tell how well your asthma is controlled. A decrease of 15% or greater from your usual measurement may be a sign of nighttime asthma. A person without asthma or with well-controlled asthma will consistently blow peak flows that vary less than 15%.

Pediatric Asthma


Also known as childhood asthma is the most common serious chronic disease in infants and children; yet is often difficult to diagnose.

In infants and children, asthma may appear as:

•Wheezing (whistling sound) when breathing


•Rapid breathing

•Labored breathing

•Complaints of chest hurting

•Reduced energy

•Feeling weak or tired


Some children have symptoms only when exercising or playing a sport. This is called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction*. Childhood asthma, just like asthma in adults, can’t be cured. But with the right medications and treatment plan, symptoms can be controlled. This is extremely important in order to prevent damage to growing lungs.

Risk factors for developing pediatric asthma:


•Family history of allergies and/or asthma

•Frequent respiratory infections

•Low birth weight

•Second-hand smoke before and/or after birth

•Growing up in a low income, urban environment

Penicillin Allergy


Penicillin are the most prescribed group of antibiotics, and delayed rashes are frequently reported in children.

About 80% people will lose their penicillin allergy if they avoid the drug for 10 years. However, a patient with the “penicillin allergic label” consequently the optimal antibiotic treatment would be denied and more likely will be prescribed a less effective alternative, more expensive and usually associated with more side effects.

Therefore penicillin allergy testing should be performed routinely in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. The evaluation performed by an allergist/ immunologist specialist requires an initial skin testing, followed by an oral challenge.

Perennial Allergic Rhinitis


See Hay Fever

Pet Allergy


Allergies to pets are caused by protein found in the animal’s dander (dead skin cells), saliva or urine. For birds, many people are allergic to the excreta. The proteins from pets are carried on microscopic particles through the air. When inhaled, they trigger reactions in allergic people. As all dogs and cats possess these proteins, none of them is allergy-free. Though some breeds are considered more allergy-friendly, it is likely because they are groomed more frequently, a process that removes much of the dander. It is a common misconception that people are allergic to a dog or cat’s hair, and it is falsely believed that an animal that sheds less will not cause a reaction.



Pollen is the male fertilizing agent of flowering plants, trees, grasses and weeds. It is also a major allergen that causes symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever)*. Weather conditions affect pollen levels. For instance, wind and humidity may affect pollen counts. Because pollen are small, light and dry, they can be easily spread by wind, which keeps pollen airborne and carries it over long distances. When the air is humid, such as during or after it rains, pollen becomes damp and heavy with moisture, keeping it still and on the ground. Allergy symptoms are often minimal on days that are rainy, cloudy or windless, because pollen does not move about during these conditions. Hot, dry and windy weather signals greater pollen and mold distribution and therefore, increased allergy symptoms.

Pollen from plants with bright flowers, such as roses, usually does not trigger allergies. These large, waxy pollen are carried from plant to plant by bees and other insects. On the other hand, many trees, grasses and low-growing weeds have small, light, dry pollen that are well-suited for dissemination by wind currents. These are the pollens that trigger allergy symptoms.